Reza Shah-Kazemi: Defining Without Confining: Reflections on a prophetic usage of sacred spaceINTRODUCTION: In this article I intend to show that, in traditional Islamic consciousness, to define the space of the sacred (the mosque, the qibla, etc.) does not confine the sacred (wherever ye turn there is the face of God), and thus that the space of the sacred cannot be subject to what we might call ‘religious nationalism’.

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